科研动态
 
推动与海洋碳汇相关的两项国家重点研发计划项目纳入中国十三五规划
发布日期:2017-2-7

       2016年,焦念志推动三个海洋碳汇相关国家重点研发计划项目纳入国家十三五规划。其中两个落户厦门大学,将对近海生态系统碳汇过程、调控机制及增汇模式以及海洋储碳与区域碳氮硫循环耦合对全球变化的影响等通过古今链接,实现MCP研究的进一步拓展。
       
焦念志进一步推动这两个项目纳入当今最大国际研究计划(IMBER)的endorsement,将在中国与国际科学界之间建立起联系的桥梁。

Brief Introduction to the National key Research and Development Project "Mechanisms of marine carbon storage and carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles in response to global change"


This is a State Key R&D program of China for a period of 2016-2021, financially supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China with 22 Chinese participants involved. This research tries to fill the critical gap between short-term processes in modern oceans and the long-term effects through ancient times. The goal of the project is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the responses of marine carbon pool to global climate change on multiple spatiotemporal scales, and to identify the naturally or anthropogenically-driven ocean acidification processes, key processes of carbon storage, and their impact on marine ecosystems by focusing on the South China Sea, the Bohai Sea of China, as well as the ancient oceans of 252 million years ago when the most severe bio-crisis occurred in Earth history.

In 2016, several achievements were gained related to the main themes of the program. For the carbon cycle related to biological pump in South China Sea, a permanent subsurface Chl a maximum (SCM) was observed in the depth range of 48 to 96 m in the central basin of the South China Sea but disappeared and replaced by enhanced surface layer phytoplankton with high Chl a in winter in the northern basin during the period of September 2014 to August 2015. A combination of strong wind mixing, surface cooling, Kuroshio water intrusion, and horizontal advection caused the winter surface phytoplankton bloom in the north. This work was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (Zhang et al. 2016).

For the carbon cycle contributed by archaea, we demonstrated that some lineages of Bathyarchaeota are acetogens, being capable of homoacetogenesis, a metabolism so far restricted to the domain Bacteria. Members of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota are widespread and abundant in the energy-deficient marine subsurface sediments. Metabolic reconstruction based on genomic bins assembled from the metagenome of deep-sea subsurface sediments shows that the metabolism of some lineages of Bathyarchaeota is similar to that of bona fide bacterial homoacetogens, by having pathways for acetogenesis and for the fermentative utilization of a variety of organic substrates. Heterologous expression and activity assay of the acetate kinase gene ack from Bathyarchaeota, demonstrate further the capability of these Bathyarchaeota to grow as acetogens. The analyses reveal that this ubiquitous and abundant subsurface archaeal group has adopted a versatile life strategy to make a living under energy-limiting conditions. These findings further expand the metabolic potential of Archaea and argue for a revision of the role of Archaea in the carbon cycle of marine sediments. This work was published in Nature Microbiology (He et al., 2016).

It is documented that the most severe faunal mass extinction in the oceans of 252 million years ago occurred as a pattern of two episodes, and was associated with abnormal biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. The first episode was associated with increases in red algae and nitrogen-fixing bacteria along with evidence for enhanced wildfires and elevated soil erosion, suggesting that terrestrial events contributed, partly if not wholly, to marine ecosystem collapse. The second episode was associated with expansions of green sulfur bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and acritarchs coinciding with climatic hyperwarming, ocean stratification, and seawater acidification. Elevated temperatures may have been the trigger for marine ecosystem changes during the second episode that had existed for >200. It appears the oceans changed from coupled carbon and nitrogen cycles during the first episode to coupled carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles during the second episode which led to the more severe marine ecosystem collapse. Based on patterns of microbial community change during this ancient crisis, the present-day Earth can be inferred to be at a stage equivalent to the precursor of a major bio-crisis, and that continued environmental pressures are likely to lead to more profound and disruptive changes to the Earth’s biosphere. This work was published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (Xie et al., 2017) (led by Dr. Shucheng Xie ).


Brief Introduction to the National key Research and Development Project "Mechanisms of marine carbon storage and carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles in response to global change"

 

This is a State Key R&D program of China for a period of 2016-2021, financially supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China with 22 Chinese participants involved. This research tries to fill the critical gap between short-term processes in modern oceans and the long-term effects through ancient times. The goal of the project is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the responses of marine carbon pool to global climate change on multiple spatiotemporal scales, and to identify the naturally or anthropogenically-driven ocean acidification processes, key processes of carbon storage, and their impact on marine ecosystems by focusing on the South China Sea, the Bohai Sea of China, as well as the ancient oceans of 252 million years ago when the most severe bio-crisis occurred in Earth history.

In 2016, several achievements were gained related to the main themes of the program. For the carbon cycle related to biological pump in South China Sea, a permanent subsurface Chl a maximum (SCM) was observed in the depth range of 48 to 96 m in the central basin of the South China Sea but disappeared and replaced by enhanced surface layer phytoplankton with high Chl a in winter in the northern basin during the period of September 2014 to August 2015. A combination of strong wind mixing, surface cooling, Kuroshio water intrusion, and horizontal advection caused the winter surface phytoplankton bloom in the north. This work was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (Zhang et al. 2016).

For the carbon cycle contributed by archaea, we demonstrated that some lineages of Bathyarchaeota are acetogens, being capable of homoacetogenesis, a metabolism so far restricted to the domain Bacteria. Members of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota are widespread and abundant in the energy-deficient marine subsurface sediments. Metabolic reconstruction based on genomic bins assembled from the metagenome of deep-sea subsurface sediments shows that the metabolism of some lineages of Bathyarchaeota is similar to that of bona fide bacterial homoacetogens, by having pathways for acetogenesis and for the fermentative utilization of a variety of organic substrates. Heterologous expression and activity assay of the acetate kinase gene ack from Bathyarchaeota, demonstrate further the capability of these Bathyarchaeota to grow as acetogens. The analyses reveal that this ubiquitous and abundant subsurface archaeal group has adopted a versatile life strategy to make a living under energy-limiting conditions. These findings further expand the metabolic potential of Archaea and argue for a revision of the role of Archaea in the carbon cycle of marine sediments. This work was published in Nature Microbiology (He et al., 2016).

It is documented that the most severe faunal mass extinction in the oceans of 252 million years ago occurred as a pattern of two episodes, and was associated with abnormal biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. The first episode was associated with increases in red algae and nitrogen-fixing bacteria along with evidence for enhanced wildfires and elevated soil erosion, suggesting that terrestrial events contributed, partly if not wholly, to marine ecosystem collapse. The second episode was associated with expansions of green sulfur bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and acritarchs coinciding with climatic hyperwarming, ocean stratification, and seawater acidification. Elevated temperatures may have been the trigger for marine ecosystem changes during the second episode that had existed for >200. It appears the oceans changed from coupled carbon and nitrogen cycles during the first episode to coupled carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles during the second episode which led to the more severe marine ecosystem collapse. Based on patterns of microbial community change during this ancient crisis, the present-day Earth can be inferred to be at a stage equivalent to the precursor of a major bio-crisis, and that continued environmental pressures are likely to lead to more profound and disruptive changes to the Earth’s biosphere. This work was published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (Xie et al., 2017) (led by Dr. Shucheng Xie ).