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科研进展

发布时间:2010/7/2   浏览次数:3947次

一、项目实施情况 (2009-2012)

1.        科学亮点概述 Overview on science highlights

The MCP concept was established with the publication of a featured article in Nature Review Microbiology (NRM) 2010, volume 8. It is noteworthy that this paper was highlighted on the cover and the contents of the issue as well as on the website of Nature Reviews Microbiology.

http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v8/n8/abs/nrmicro2386.html

Figure 1. The conceptual framework of MCP and its relationship with the biological pump (left) and the majorcarbon reservoirs and carbon storage in the ocean (right)(Jiao et al. Nature Review Microbiology 2010 (8):593-599).

Not long after the publication of the MCP theory, a Science News Focus article (SCIENCE 328:1476-1477, 2010)addressed another story about the MCP: its origin, rationale, implications, applications, impacts, and prospects. In this article, the MCP is considered as “An invisible hand behind the vast carbon reservoir”.

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/328/5985/1476.full

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Figure 2.The so called “double-barrel pump” pointed thateach year, the biological pump deposits some 300 million tons of carbon in the deep ocean sink. However, even more massive amounts are suspended in the water column as dissolved organic carbon, much of which is converted into refractory forms by the microbial carbon pump(R. Stone. Science 18 June 2010: Vol. 328. no. 5985, pp. 1476 -1477).

 

Meanwhile, the conceptual framework of MCP was adapted to land carbon sequestration by peer colleagues in soil science and Prof. Nianzhi Jiao proposed the idea of “Increasing the microbial carbon sink in the sea by reducing chemical fertilization on the land” (Figure 3).

http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v9/n1/full/nrmicro2386-c2.html 

                    

Figure 3.The key information delivered by the aforesaid paper: Microbial carbon processing scenarios under different environmental conditions. Figure a shows thatmicrobial respiration of DOC is mobilized by enhanced terrestrial nutrient input, and b shows microbial carbon sequestration is enhanced by reducing terrestrial nutrient input(Jiao, et al.Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2011. 9(1):75.

In the current environment, most coastal waters suffer from excessive nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) discharge, which result in eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. More importantly, when nutrients are replete, dissolved organic carbon can be mobilized for microbial degradation and respiration. That is why the estuarine waters, being productive, but are often sources rather than “sinks” of atmospheric CO2. Reducing nutrient input from the land would be a realistic way to increase microbial carbon sink in such coastal waters.

In correspondence, an article entitled “The microbial carbon pump and the oceanic recalcitrant dissolved organic matter pool”was published in Nature Reviews Microbiology 9, 555 (July 2011) (Figure 4).

http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v9/n7/full/nrmicro2386-c5.html

                            

Figure 4. The successive microbial carbon pump processes for RDOM formation and subsequent contribution to the oceanic RDOM pool. ML andMSL represent those microorganisms that can use labile dissolved organic matter (LDOM) or semi-labile DOM (SLDOM), respectively. The subscript numbers indicate the numerous compounds or microbes. Extents of recalcitrance are indicated by the colour sequence dark blue > light blue > green; grey indicates old DOM from seabed seeps or hydrothermal vents, which is not entirely recalcitrant, as some of these old compounds are readily available to microorganisms for respiration. Note that multiple processes are simplified here (for example, the back flows from SLDOM to LDOM) (Jiao et al, Nature Reviews Microbiology 9, 555, 2011).

A Science booklet on MCP including 10 papers previously published in Science and 10 new articles written by the WG134 members,in the form of "Supplement to Science", was distributed worldwide with the 13th of May 2011 issue of Science. Its electronic version is available on the Science website (http://science.imirus.com/Mpowered/book/vscim11/i2/p1) (Figure 5).In addition, a special session on MCP was published in Applied and Environmental Microbio, lo, gy, withan illustration of the simplified&nbs, p;MCP theoryselected to be on the cover of AEM, Nov. 2011, Vol 77, No. 21 (Figure 5).

                        

Figure 5.The MCP booklet supplemental to Science (left) and The AEM cover with MCP image(right).

Other representative publications and highlighting research are summarized here:

  • Marine snows are indicated as active sites for microbial remineralization - Bochdansky, A.B., H.M. van Aken, G.J. Herndl, 2010: Role of macroscopic particles in deep-sea oxygen consumption. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107: 8287-8291.

http://www.pnas.org/content/107/18/8287.full.pdf

  • ASLO Emerging issues workshop report, Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 20(2) June 2011, 37-38(Figure 6).

http://www.aslo.org/bulletin/12_v21_i4.pdf

  • ASLO–SCOR Workshop on the Microbial Carbon Pump, Challenger Society for Marine Science, Challenger Wave – March 2011: 8-9 (Figure 6).

   

Figure 6.ASLO Emerging issues workshop report (left) and monthly newsletter Challenger Society for Marine Science (right) reporting MCP WG activities.

  • Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the eastern Atlantic Ocean - Special Issue in Biogeosciences, 2011 (Editors: Boris Koch, Gerhard Kattner, GerhardHerndl).

http://www.biogeosciences.net/9/2597/2012/bg-9-2597-2012.pdf

  • Publications: Kawasaki, N., R. Sohrin, H. Ogawa, T. Nagata and R. Benner. 2011. Bacterial carbon content and the living and detrital bacterial contributions to suspended particulate organic carbon in the North Pacific Ocean. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 62: 165-176.

http://www.int-res.com/articles/ame2011/62/a062p165.pdf

Kaiser, K., and R, Benner. 2012. Organic matter transformations in the upper mesopelagic zone of the North Pacific: chemical composition and linkages to microbial community structure. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C01023,doi: 10.1029/2011JC007141.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2011JC007141/full#references

 

二、 SCOR WG-134后续活动与进展 (2013-2014)

 

1.        IMBER IMBIZO III conference

A MCP based topicalworkshop 2, "Impacts of anthropogenic perturbations on ocean carbon sequestration via BP and MCP" was convened by Prof. Nianzhi Jiao, Prof. FarooqAzam,Prof.

  
 Figure 11.A cartoon video of MCP waspresentedat the conference (left), the conveners and audiences interacting during theworkshop discussion (right).

 

1.2 Outcome highlights

A summary report of the MCP workshop and a template for writing the synthesis paper on MCP was accomplished during the meeting synthesis session; an introduction to a national Chinese research project “Processes and mechanisms of microbial carbon sequestration in the ocean” was submitted as one of the science highlights from the IMBER IMBIZO III (http://www.imber.info/index.php/Products/Newsletters/Issue-n-24-August-2013).

A special issue on MCP in the journal of Biogeosciences (BG) was aimed to bring together articles arising from this workshop.

To date a total of 11 papers have been accepted for publish under the BG special issue of"The impact of anthropogenic perturbations on open ocean carbon transformation, export and sequestration", they are:

  • Dang H, Jiao N (2014) Perspectives on the microbial carbon pump with special reference to microbial respiration and ecosystem efficiency in large estuarine systems. Biogeosciences11: 3887-3898.

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/3887/2014/bg-11-3887-2014.pdf

  • Jiao N, Luo T, Zhang R, Yan W, Lin Y, et al. (2014) Presence of Prochlorococcus in the aphotic waters of the western Pacific Ocean. Biogeosciences11: 2391-2400

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/2391/2014/bg-11-2391-2014.pdf

  • Jiao N, Zhang Y, Zhou K, Li Q, Dai M, et al. (2014) Revisiting the CO2 "source" problem in upwelling areas; a comparative study on eddy upwellings in the South China Sea. Biogeosciences11: 2465-2475.

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/2465/2014/bg-11-2465-2014.pdf

  •  Koch BP, Kattner G, Witt M, Passow U (2014) Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile? Biogeosciences 11: 4173-4190.

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/4173/2014/bg-11-4173-2014.pdf

  • Li Y, Luo T, Sun J, Cai L, Liang Y, et al. (2014) Lytic viral infection of bacterioplankton in deep waters of the western Pacific Ocean. Biogeosciences 11: 2531-2542.

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/2531/2014/bg-11-2531-2014.pdf

  •  Liu J, Jiao N, Tang K (2014) An experimental study on the effects of nutrient enrichment on organic carbon persistence in the western Pacific oligotrophic gyre. Biogeosciences11: 5115-5122.

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/5115/2014/bg-11-5115-2014.pdf

  • Mitra A, Flynn KJ, Burkholder JM, Berge T, Calbet A, et al. (2014) The role of mixotrophic protists in the biological carbon pump. Biogeosciences 11: 995-1005.

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/995/2014/bg-11-995-2014.pdf

  • Romanou A, Romanski J, Gregg WW (2014) Natural ocean carbon cycle sensitivity to parameterizations of the recycling in a climate model. Biogeosciences11: 1137-1154.

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/1137/2014/bg-11-1137-2014.pdf

  • Zhang Y, Xie X, Jiao N, Hsiao SSY, Kao SJ (2014) Diversity and distribution of amoA-type nitrifying and nirS-type denitrifying microbial communities in the Yangtze River estuary. Biogeosciences11: 2131-2145.

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/2131/2014/bg-11-2131-2014.pdf

  • Jiao N, Robinson C, Azam F, et al., (2014) Mechanisms of microbial carbon sequestration in the ocean-future research directions. Biogeosciences11: 5285-5306.

http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/5285/2014/bg-11-5285-2014.pdf

  • S. E. Craig, H. Thomas, C. T. Jones, W. K. W. Li, B. J. W. Greenan, E. H. Shadwick, W. J. Burt (2013) Temperature and phytoplankton cell size regulate carbon uptake and carbon overconsumption in the ocean. Biogeosciences Discuss 10, 11255-11282.

http://www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/10/11255/2013/bgd-10-11255-2013.pdf

Research highlights from the BG special issue on MCP:

  • For the first time coauthors of this MCP synthesis paper has brought to light in a relatively clear way, the nature and controls of DOC in the ocean-linking RDOC at multiple dimensions: temporal (age)and spatial (depth) transformations of RDOC (Figure 12).

Figure 12.Linking RDOC at multiple dimensions: temporal (age)and spatial (depth) transformations of RDOC. Lower panel: successivemicrobial processing of organic carbon results in the generationof RDOC of different recalcitrance and different potential residencetime; MCP – microbial carbon pump; RDOCt– RDOC compoundsthat are resistant to microbial consumption in certain environments,but subject to further cleaving and decomposition when the situationchanges; RDOCc– composed of diverse small molecules which areinaccessible to microbial uptake due to their low concentration. Upperpanel: microbial response (in terms of abundance or uptake rate)to DOC availability as a reference to conceptualize the microbialuptake threshold for RDOCc,microbial abundance correspondingto DOC concentrations of 40μM in the deep and 70μM in the surfaceoceans;LDOC – labile DOC, a fraction of DOC, which is immediatelyaccessible to microbial utilization; SLDOC – semi-labileDOC, a fraction of DOC, which resides mainly in the upper layerbut which becomes labile when transported to deep water.

  • Interactions between POC and DOC sequestration- the contribution of the MCP to carbon storagecould be expected to be relatively high in the oligotrophicocean. A similar transition from dominance of the BP todominance of the MCP might be expected along a latitudinalgradient from polar regions to the tropics and from surfacewaters to the mesopelagic (Figure 13, Figure 14).

1.        The IMBER Open Science Conference (OSC) 2014

2.1 Special meeting session on MCP

In June this year, IMBER held its Open Science Conference 2014, under theme “Future Oceans: Research for marine sustainability, multiple stressors, drivers, challenges and solutions” in Bergen, Norway. The special session of “Microbial and geochemical perspectives of global carbon cycling and climate change: from genes toecosystems, from ancient to current” under the conference session B - Lower Trophic Level Processes and Dynamics, was convened and hosted by Prof. Farooq Azam, Prof. Carol Robinson and Prof. Nianzhi Jiao successfully.

2.2 "Mechanisms and magnitude of Blue Carbon storage in the ocean"- a proposal for the IMBER Position Paper
As a follow-up to the IMBER OSC, Prof. Nianzhi Jiao (China), Prof. FarooqAzam (USA), Prof. Louis Legendre (France) and Prof.Helmulth Thomas (Canada) prepared a proposal for the "IMBER Position Paper", i.e. to add a new subsection to Section 3.1 (Developing a new research plan) entitled "Mechanisms and magnitude of Blue Carbon storage in the ocean". The main challenge/aim is, toidentify the mechanisms of capture andstorage/sequestration of carbon by marine organisms and ecosystems (i.e. Blue Carbon), both inshore and offshore, and to quantify these mechanisms in order to provide natural-science bases to social and economic alternatives to the present human practices that cause the decline of Blue Carbon sinks (see Figure 16).
3. The 15th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology (ISME-15)

As the local organizers of the ISME 15th conference (held in South Korea in August 2014), WG members Prof. Kang-Jin Kim and Prof. Nianzhi Jiao were involved not only as the conference local organizers, but also convened the invited oral session IS23 - Microbial carbon sequestration(conveners, Nianzhi Jiao and Richard Bardgett , session). Particularly, Prof. FarooqAzam also gave the invited talk entitled “Microbial microscale interactions: Implications for carbon sequestration in the ocean”.

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